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Chapter 12
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  • New styles from the 1980s underground
    • Two early styles emerged during the early 1980s
      1. Heavy Metal
      2. Rap
    • Grunge emerged from Seattle late in the late 1980s
    • The common elements
      1. Roots in earlier styles
      2. Immensely popular and successful
      3. Image: representative of a disenfranchised segment of society
      4. Each style maintained its individual identity
  • The rise of heavy metal
    • Origin of the name is unclear
      1. Steppenwolf song lyric "Born to Be Wild": ". . . Heavy metal thunder. . ."
      2. Beat Writer William S. Burroughs used the term
      3. Journalists used it to describe Jimi Hendrix's music
        • As described by Chas Chandler in the PBS documentary "History of Rock and Roll"
        • ". . . His music sounds like heavy metal falling from the sky . . ."
    • Stylistic features that were inspirational to metal musicians
      1. Iron Butterfly's song "In-a-Gadda-Da-Vida" seen as an early precursor
      2. Most writers cite Black Sabbath as the originators of the style
        • The heavy and gothic character of Sabbath's early music
        • Driving riffs
        • Dark themes
        • Extended guitar solos
      3. The heavier side of Led Zeppelin's music
      4. Deep Purple
        • Musical features similar to Black Sabbath's music
        • Added aspects of classical music
      5. Bands with extravagant showmanship
        • Alice Cooper
        • Kiss
      6. Metal emerged from British and Los Angeles underground scenes
    • Heavy metal image
      1. "Headbanger" was a nickname for fans
        • Allusion to unsophisticated character
        • Blue-collar white audience
        • Referring to primitive music
      2. Parodies of the heavy metal fan and music style:
        • Wayne's World skits on Saturday Night Live and subsequent films
        • Spinal Tap film
        • Bevis and Butthead animated MTV series
      3. Bands presented an image of opposition to the status quo
        • Show-biz glitziness
        • Less mainstream and more on the tawdry strip-club side of glitz
        • Rejection of commercial success
        • Gesture of cultural defiance
  • British heavy metal
    • General characteristics of all British Heavy Metal bands in 1980s
      1. Guitar driven
      2. Emphasis on flashy soloing
      3. Heavy drumbeats
      4. An attempt to get back to an earlier style
    • Ozzy Osborne quit Black Sabbath in 1977
      1. Went solo and released successful albums in 1980 and 1981
        • The Blizzard of Ozz (uk7 p2, 1980)
        • Diary of a Madman (uk14 p16, 1981)
      2. Worked with Randy Rhodes on guitar
      3. Black Sabbath replaced Ozzy with Ronnie James Dio on lead vocals
    • Judas Priest
      1. Formed in Birmingham, England, in 1970
      2. First success in 1979 with their album Hell Bent for Leather (uk32, 1979)
      3. The follow-up, British Steel (uk4 p34, 1980) contained strong tracks
        • "Breaking the Law" and
        • "Living after Midnight"
    • Iron Maiden
      1. Formed in England in 1976
      2. First success in England: the album Iron Maiden (uk4, 1980)
      3. America success began with The Number of the Beast (uk1 p33, 1982)
    • Def Leppard
      1. First success was the 1981 album High 'n' Dry (uk26 p38, 1981)
      2. Following with Pyromania (uk18 p2, 1983) containing the track "Photograph"
      3. "Photograph" got heavy rotation on early MTV
    • Mötorhead: 1970s band that influenced 1980s metal
      1. Formed by Lemmy Kilminster in the mid 1970s
      2. Incorporated several stylistic elements
        • Guitar-dominated sound of British blues rock
        • Punk tempos
        • Biker culture
        • Leather fashion
      3. Albums were successful only in England
        • Mötorhead (uk43, 1977)
        • Ace of Spades (uk4, 1980)
        • Iron Fist (uk6, 1982)
  • Los Angeles heavy metal
    • Los Angeles had established itself as a place to succeed in the record industry
      1. Musicians migrated to Los Angeles during the 1970s
      2. Metal style guitar players were inspired by Van Halen's success
      3. Heavy Metal relies on guitar—often two lead guitarists in a band
      4. The Metal style sustained the influx of guitar players in Los Angeles
    • Van Halen
      1. Personality clashes in the band between Eddie Van Halen and singer David Lee Roth
      2. Last album featuring Roth was 1984 (p2 ukl5, 1984)
      3. Sammy Hagar replaced Roth in 1985
      4. Released 5150 (p1 ukl6, 1986)
      5. Roth released a solo album in 1985
        • Eat 'em and Smile (p4 uk28)
        • Featured guitarist Steve Vai
    • Quiet Riot
      1. Metal Health reached number one the top spot on the U.S. charts in 1983
      2. Contained the cover "Cum On and Feel the Noize"
      3. Hit for Slade in the 1970s
      4. Went to number five on the singles charts
    • Motley Crüe
      1. Featuring singer Vince Neil
      2. Drummer Tommy Lee
      3. Several successful albums throughout the decade
        • First successful album Shout at the Devil (p 17, 1983)
        • Girls Girls Girls (p2 uk14, 1987)
        • Dr. Feelgood (p1 uk4, 1989)
      4. "Shout at the Devil" exemplifies the Los Angeles Metal style:
        • Kind of guitar-driven, pop oriented metal
        • Vince Neil's singing is high, almost screaming
        • Influence of Led Zeppelin's Robert Plant
        • Drumming is loud and assertive
        • Uunison, sing-along vocals on the chorus suggest an anthem-like quality
        • Band drops out late in the track to focus on the vocal hook
        • Less virtuosic guitar playing than usual
        • Guitar is still the focus of the instrumental bridge
    • Ratt
      1. Their album Out of the Cellar (p7, 1984) was the first and biggest success
      2. Hit single "Round and Round" (p12)
    • Twisted Sister
      1. From New York
      2. Led by singer Dee Snyder
      3. Their album Stay Hungry reached (p15 uk34, 1984)
      4. Hit single: "We're Not Gonna Take It" (p21)
  • The rise of the metal mega-stars and hair bands
    • Why metal bands were referred to as "hair bands"
      1. During the 1970s some bands had employed makeup and costumes to enhance their visual image
        • Alice Cooper
        • Kiss
        • David Bowie
        • Genesis
        • A central factor of the English glam movement
      2. Many metal bands followed these models
        • Wore makeup
        • Outrageous clothes
        • Heavily teased and sprayed hair
      3. Audience tended to be all male
      4. Ironic aspects of bands' images
        • Feminine elements of makeup and teased hair
        • Masculine on-stage mannerisms and gestures
        • Music and lyrics portrayed distinctively macho attitude
    • Bon Jovi
      1. New Jersey
      2. Led by singer Jon Bon Jovi
      3. Their album Slippery When Wet (p1 uk6, 1986) had several hit singles
        • "You Give Love a Bad Name" (uk14) among them
        • "Livin' on a Prayer" (p1 uk4) also on that album
      4. Next album, New Jersey (p1 uk1, 1988) had hit singles
        • "Bad Medicine" (p1 ukl7)
        • "I'll Be There for You" (uk18)
      5. The band moved toward a more mainstream pop style
      6. Continued success into 1990s
    • Guns and Roses
      1. Led by Singer Axl Rose and lead guitarist Slash (Saul Hudson)
      2. Debut album Appetite for Destruction (p1 uk5, 1987)—hit singles on that album
        • "Welcome to the Jungle" (p1 uk4)
        • "Sweet Child of Mine" (p7 uk4)
        • The singles made them one of the most successful rock acts of 1988
      3. Simultaneously released two enormously successful albums in 1991
        • Use Your Illusion I (p2 uk2)
        • Use Your Illusion II (p1 uk1)
    • Poison
      1. 1986 album Look What the Cat Dragged In hit number three in the United States
      2. Next album Open Up and Say . . . Aah! (p2 uk18, 1988) even more successful
        • Contained the hit single "Every Rose Has Its Thorn" (p1 uk13)
        • New stylistic approach called the "power ballad"
      3. Power ballad
        • Heavy metal version of a slow song
        • The singer displays his sensitive side
        • Begins with a quiet expressive section
        • Later in the song heavy guitars and drums enter
  • Speed metal, thrash metal, and the hippie aesthetic
    • Speed metal
      1. Fast tempos
      2. Virtuosic guitar passages
      3. Wide variety of textures
    • Thrash metal
      1. Musicians' reaction to speed metal
      2. Speed metal focus considered too narrow
      3. Technical virtuosity was too demanding
      4. Thrash metal contained wider variety of textures
      5. Also a wider spectrum of tempos
    • The hippie aesthetic in heavy metal virtuosity
      1. Blistering guitar solos are associated with heavy metal
      2. Critics considered such solos empty or self-indulgent
      3. Direct continuation of late 1960s and early 1970s sensibilities
        • References to classical music models
        • Extended forms
        • Virtuosic solos
        • Concept albums devoted to important issues
      4. Deep Purple's Richie Blackmore was influential
        • His solo on "Highway Star"
      5. Eddie Van Halen
        • His solo "Eruption"
        • Two-hand tapping techniques heard on this track
        • Cut from their first album
      6. Randy Rhoads
        • "Mr. Crowley"
    • Metallica
      1. More serious minded
      2. Focus on musicianship
      3. Their music referred to as "speed metal"
      4. Formed in Los Angeles, moved to San Francisco
      5. Influences:
        • Black Sabbath
        • Led Zeppelin
        • Deep Purple
        • Mötorhead
      6. Released a series of highly successful albums
        • Master of Puppets (p29 uk41, 1986)
        • breakthrough album : . . . And Justice for All (p6 uk4, 1988)
        • Contains the track "One"
      7. "One" is representative example of the band's music
        • Large-scale two-part form
        • Begins quietly
        • Gains intensity and speed in the second section
      8. The album Metallica (p1 ukl, 1991)
        • Established them as one of the most important heavy metal bands
        • Includes "Enter Sandman"
        • Perhaps the most exceptional track in all of metal
    • Megadeth
      1. Led by former Metallica guitarist-singer Dave Mustaine
      2. Important thrash metal band
        • Album: Peace Sells . . . But Who's Buying? (1986)
        • Album: Countdown to Extinction (p2 uk5, 1992)
        • Album: Youthanasia (p4 uk6, 1994)
    • Yngwie Malmsteen
      1. Swedish guitarist
      2. Virtuosic approach to metal guitar playing
      3. Employed traditional classical-music approach
      4. Played with several Los Angeles bands beginning in 1982
        • Steeler
        • Alcatrazz
        • Rising Force
      5. 1984: Rising Force released its debut album
      6. The track "Dark Star" demonstrates Malmsteen' s technique
    • Other notable late 1980s hair bands
      1. Warrant
        • Album: Dirty Rotten Stinking Filthy Rich (p10, 1988)
        • Album: Cherry Pie (p7, 1990)
      2. Winger
        • Album: Winger (p21, 1988)
        • Album: In the Heart of the Young (p15, 1990)
      3. Skid Row
        • Featuring singer Sebastian Bach
        • Album: Skid Row (p6 uk30, 1989)
        • Album: Slave to the Grind (p1 uk5, 1991)
    • Other thrash metal bands
      1. Anthrax (from New York)
        • Album: Among the Living (p62 uk18, 1987)
      2. Slayer (from Los Angeles)
        • Album: Reign in Blood (p94 uk47, 1986)
  • The emergence of rap
    • Hip-hop culture
      1. Origins in New York
      2. Two elements of hip-hop culture drew public's attention before rap:
        • Graffiti
        • Break dancing
      3. Graffiti as publicity
        • Graffiti artists spray-painted their names on subway cars
        • Their name would be "broadcast" by the cars on their regular route around the city
      4. Break dancing
        • First practiced by black teens, and Hispanic teens soon afterward
        • Elaborate acrobatic spins and movements on a piece of cardboard or plastic on the sidewalk
    • The first hip-hop DJs
      1. Employed the Jamaican approach to providing sound systems for parties
        • Parties were often in city parks
        • MCs (master of ceremonies) commented on the music
        • Also encouraged partygoers to dance and join in the festivities
      2. The first known DJ to use an MC for his activities was Kool Herc
        • Pulled a truck up to a city power box and played loud music for the whole neighborhood
        • His MC was Coke La Rock
      3. MCs developed into rappers
      4. Blended the MC role with black radio DJ between-song patter
    • The mix concept
      1. Radio stations and dance clubs used two record turntables:
        • One for the record being played
        • The other for the next record to be cued up to play
      2. Early DJs used this approach to transition from one song to the next
        • Kool Herc
        • Grandmaster Flash
      3. Early DJs used this double turntable concept to create a new approach: break spinning
        • Used two copies of the same record
        • Played the same passages over and over between the turntables
        • As the passage ended on one, it would be replayed on the other
        • Purpose was to incite the dancers to greater excitement
        • Created new music (in a sense) out of recorded "samples"
        • This formed the aesthetic basis for rap
    • Scratching
      1. Popularized by Grandmaster Flash
      2. The record is quickly and repeatedly rotated forward and reverse
      3. This creates a distinctive rhythm
    • Afrika Bambaataa
      1. Incorporated obscure or unlikely tracks into his mixes
      2. Founded Zulu Nation in 1974
        • Organization devoted to building brotherhood in the community
        • De-emphasizing crime in urban New York City
      3. Kurtis Blow had a hit soon after with "The Breaks (Part I)" (r4, 1980)
    • The first rap records
      1. Sugar Hill Records
        • Based in Englewood, New Jersey
        • Run by Joe and Sylvia Robinson
        • Sylvia heard party guests chanting rhymes with instrumental sections of disco records
        • Thought it might sell
        • Assembled some young men who rapped over a rhythm track for Chic's "Good Times"
        • Released "Rapper's Delight" (r4 p36, 1979)
      2. Focus became the rapping
        • Instrumental mixing became the backdrop to the rapping
        • DJs switched roles from leaders of live hip-hop entertainment to background accompanists
      3. Sugar Hill released a series of now "classic" old-school rap tracks by important rap pioneers
      4. Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five's "The Message" (r4 p62, 1982) is one of them
    • Def Jam Records
      1. Formed by Russell Simmons and Rick Rubin
      2. Released records by top rappers
        • LL Cool J
        • Beastie Boys
        • Public Enemy
      3. Simmons formed Rush Entertainment management company
        • Handled some of rap's top acts
        • Run-DMC
        • Kurtis Blow
        • Jazzy Jeff and the fresh Prince
      4. Def Jam has been compared to Motown
        • Simmons and Rubin ran the most impressive rap indie label of that time
        • Like Motown, they intended to make rap crossover to white teen audience
      5. LL Cool J among their first successes
        • In 1985 he made an appearance in the movie Krush Groove
        • Hit rhythm and blues single "I Can't Live without My Radio" (r15)
        • Album Radio (r6 p46, 1986) was successful for rhythm and blues and pop
      6. LL Cool J had better crossover success in 1987
        • "1 Need Love" (r1 p14)
        • Possibly the first rap ballad
        • The album Bigger and Deffer crossed over successfully (r1 p3) on album charts
    • Run-DMC: two rappers and a DJ
      1. "Run": Joseph Simmons (label owner Russell Simmons's younger brother)
      2. "DMC": Darryl McDaniels
      3. DJ "Jam Master Jay": Jason Mizell
      4. Some crossover success with the single "Rock Box" (r22, 1984)
        • MTV played the video for the song
        • Run-DMC liked to rap over instrumental breaks in rock records
        • "Rock Box" is an example of this
      5. Run-DMC liked the opening drum beat from Aerosmith's "Walk This Way"
        • Rick Rubin re-recorded the song's tracks with Aerosmith's Steven Tyler and Joe Perry
        • The Run-DMC version featured both the rappers and the rockers
        • "Walk This Way" (r5 p4, 1986) brought rap into the pop mainstream
      6. Run-DMC's first album, Run-DMC (r14 p53, 1984), is among the most influential early rap records
      7. Raising Hell (r1 p6, 1986) brought Run-DMC stardom
      8. Def Jam Records then produced Beastie Boys—a band of white rappers
    • Beastie Boys
      1. Single "(You Gotta) Fight for Your Right to Party" was a successful crossover in 1987 (p7)
      2. Their album Licensed to Ill was the first pop number one rap record (r2)
      3. Among the first bands to take advantage of the new digital sampling technology
      4. Sampling became the mainstay of rappers to create backing tracks
        • Lawsuits arose over obligations to pay for use of other artists' tracks
        • They are required to pay for use of tracks
  • Gangsta Rap
    • Ice T (Tracy Morrow)
      1. Moved to Los Angeles as a child
      2. Became one of the most important west coast rappers
      3. His single "I'm Your Pusher" (r13, 1988) focused on urban problems
        • Sampled Curtis Mayfield's "Pusherman"
        • More angry and aggressive than earlier artists in the 1970s
      4. Album Power (r6 p35 1988) did well
      5. Greater crossover success in the 1990s
        • O.G. Original Gangster (r9 p15, 1991)
        • Home Invasion (r9 p 14, 1993)
    • Boogie Down Productions (BDP)
      1. Focused on social and political criticism
      2. Led by KRS-One (Kris Parker)
      3. The band's first album: Criminal Minded (r73, 1987)
        • Influenced many rappers
        • Uncompromising and harsh depictions of urban life
      4. Two albums brought their greatest crossover success
        • Ghetto Music: The Blueprint of Hip-Hop (r7 p36, 1989)
        • Edutainment (r9 p32, 1990)
    • Public Enemy
      1. Combined elements of other groups
        • Led by Chuck D and Flavor Flav
        • One of the most influential groups in rap
        • Rhythmic style of Run-DMC
        • Political approach of BDP
      2. Chart success began in 1988
        • It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back (r1 p42)
        • The single "Don't Believe the Hype" (r18) was on that album
        • The band's single "Fight the Power" (r20, 1989) was popularized on film
        • Featured in Spike Lee's film Do the Right Thing
      3. Next album, Fear of a Black Planet (r3 p10, 1990) was a crossover hit
      4. Greatest crossover success with Apocalypse 91—The Enemy Strikes Back (r1 p4, 1991)
    • N.W.A. (Niggaz with Attitude)
      1. Los Angeles
      2. Even angrier approach to rap
        • Band's 1989 album Straight Outta Compton (r9 p37) notable for negative reaction
        • Record company, Ruthless, received a warning letter from the FBI
      3. Penchant for depicting dangerous urban life appealed strongly to white kids
      4. Next album EFIL4ZAGGIN hit number one on the pop album charts in 1991 (r2)
    • Controversy over rap
      1. Is it music?
        • Critics have argued that rap is not really "music"
        • Many rappers don't play instruments or sing
        • Offensive words
        • Negative images portrayed in videos
      2. Focus on negative aspects of race and class distinctions
        • A phenomenon present since 1955
        • These issues also account for some of its attraction
      3. White rap fans are fascinated by the urban violence depicted in rap
        • Contrast to the suburban environment
      4. Use of preexisting music has been a common facet of pop music since WWII
  • Common aspects of rap and heavy metal
    • They developed along parallel paths
      1. Both styles developed devoted followings on MTV
        • Headbangers' Ball premiered in 1987
        • Exclusively metal videos
        • Yo! MTV Raps debuted in August 1988
        • One of the most popular shows on MTV
      2. Both styles presented an "outsider" image
        • They depended on class differences
        • Both styles became emblematic of the lower end of the class spectrum
      3. Where the two styles differ
        • While rap continued to develop throughout the 1990s
        • Heavy metal faded out of favor with appearance of grunge
        • Race issues must be figured into rap (not in heavy metal)
  • Alternative rock from Seattle
    • The connection to 1970s British punk
      1. British punk motivated by socioeconomic issues
      2. American punk was not based on those frustrations
      3. Many American guitar oriented post-punk bands emerged during the 1980s
      4. Alternative rock embraced the same return-to-basics approach as 1970s punk bands
      5. Reaction against "establishment" influence on music
        • MTV appearance—driven bands
        • Flashy and virtuosic solos of heavy metal
        • Alt rockers dressed very casually
        • Projected themselves as amateur instrumentalists
        • Rejected the idea of recording for a major label
        • Do-it-yourself aesthetic rejected the commercialism of popular music
    • Nirvana
      1. Most important band in Seattle's grunge scene
      2. Played their first shows in Olympia, Washington
      3. Led by singer/songwriter/guitarist Kurt Cobain
      4. Their music rejected the entire rock star apparatus
      5. Debut album Nevermind (p1 uk7) was released late 1991
        • Single "Smells like Teen Spirit" (p6 uk7, 1991) was hugely successful
        • Began the movement called alternative rock
      6. Began the movement called alternative rock
        • In Utero (1993)
        • Unplugged in New York (1994)
      7. Nirvana's career ended with Cobain's suicide in April 1994
    • Hole
      1. Led by Courtney Love
        • One of the most aggressive grunge bands
        • Due to Love's combative image
      2. She married Kurt Cobain in 1992
      3. Released successful albums in early 1990s
        • Pretty on the Inside (1991) drew favorable reviews
        • Live Through This did well in the UK
        • Celebrity Skin (1998) reached number nine in the United States
        • Love co-starred with Woody Harrelson in the film The People vs. Larry Flynt
    • Pearl Jam
      1. Also from Seattle
      2. Leader: singer Eddie Vedder
      3. Their sound was closer to heavy metal than other grunge bands
        • Made for more radio airplay
        • In contrast to their anti-commercial attitude
      4. Their early albums established them as a top act by mid-decade
        • Ten (p2 uk18, 1992)
        • VS (p1 uk2, 1993)
        • Vitology (p1 uk6, 1994)
      5. Began a legal battle with Ticketmaster
        • They believed the company was forcing higher ticket prices
        • Made it difficult for their fans to afford to see their concerts
        • Lost a court case against the ticket retailer
        • They were heroes to the anti-establishment alt-rock community
      6. They had hit records at the end of the 1990s
        • Album Yield (1998) hit number two on the U.S. charts
        • Single with "Last Kiss" (p2 1999)
        • "Last Kiss" was a cover of the 1964 splatter platter by J. Wilson and the Cavaliers
        • Initially recorded for their fan club
    • Soundgarden
      1. Formed in Seattle in the late 1980s
      2. Led by the vocals of Chris Cornell and the guitar playing of Kim Thayil
      3. Blend of earlier styles
      4. Heavy metal
        • 1970s blues rock
        • 1960s psychedelia
      5. Commercial success with Superunknown (p1 uk4, 1994)
    • Alice in Chains
      1. Formed in Seattle by singer Layne Staley in the late 1980s
      2. Similar lyric approach to that of speed metal bands
        • Dark lyrics dealing with drug addiction and death reflect speed metal influences
        • Metallica
        • Megadeth
      3. 1991 debut album, Facelift, was initially directed at metal fans
      4. Capitalized on Nirvana's success as a Seattle band
      5. Album Dirt reached number six in the U.S. charts
      6. 1994 EP Jar of Flies had an important distinction
        • First EP to reach number one on Billboard's album chart
        • Acoustically oriented
      7. 1995' s Alice in Chains debuted at number one in U.S.charts
    • Foo Fighters
      1. Formed by Nirvana drummer Dave Grohl
      2. First album, Foo Fighters, was a set of solo recordings he'd made
        • Initial release on cassettes
        • Reached number twenty-three on U.S. album charts (uk3)
      3. Released several more successful albums
  • California alternative bands
    • Green Day
      1. Formed in San Francisco
      2. Led by singer/songwriter/guitarist Billy Joe Armstrong
      3. Hard driving and aggressive sound
      4. Clear stylistic influences of 1960s pop and 1970s punk
      5. First significant commercial success began in 1994
        • Dookie (p2)
        • 1995 album Insomniac (p2)
      6. The ballad "Good Riddance (Time of Your Life)" is significant
        • Demonstrates their softer side
        • Played during the final episode of Seinfeld
    • Faith No More
      1. Musical approach akin to irreverence of Frank Zappa
      2. Formed in San Francisco in 1982
        • Bassist Billy Gould
        • Keyboardist Roddy Bottum
        • Drummer Mike Bordin
        • Added Mike Patton on vocals in 1988
      3. Began successful releases in 1990
        • The Real Thing (p11, 1990)
        • Number nine single "Epic" contained on that album
        • Angel Dust (p10, 1992)
    • Red Hot Chili Peppers
      1. Formed in 1983 in Hollywood
      2. Influenced by '70s funk and '70s punk
        • Shown in playing style of the band's bassist, Flea
        • 1985 album Freaky Styley produced by George Clinton
      3. 1989 covered Stevie Wonder's "Higher Ground" on Mother's Milk album
      4. First commercial success with BloodSugarSexMagik
        • Produced by Rick Rubin
        • Number three in 1991
      5. Subsequent hit albums
        • One Hot Minute (p4, 1994)
        • Californication (p3, 1999)
      6. Developed a reputation for innovative videos
    • Stone Temple Pilots
      1. Formed in 1987 in San Diego
      2. Combined stylistic influences
        • Seattle bands like Alice in Chains and Pearl Jam
        • 1970s guitar-oriented mainstream rock
      3. First three albums reached the top five on the U.S. charts
        • Core (1992)
        • Purple (1994)
        • Tiny Music (1996)
    • Bands that returned to the 1960s and 1970s
      1. Smashing Pumpkins
        • From Chicago
        • Led by singer/songwriter/guitarist Billy Corgan
        • Aspects of progressive rock, psychedelia, and early heavy metal.
        • Important album: Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness (p1 uk4, 1995)
      2. Oasis
        • From England
        • Too heavily influenced by the Beatles for their own good
        • More success in England than in the states
        • Important album: Definitely Maybe—number one in UK in 1994
        • (What's the Story) Morning Glory—hit in UK and the states in 1995
      3. Blur
        • More successful in UK than in United States
        • Successful album: Parklife (uk1, 1994)
      4. Suede
        • More popular in UK than in United States
        • Successful album: Suede (uk1, 1993)
      5. Radiohead
        • Pink Floyd's spacey atmospheric approach
        • Bends (uk6, 1995)
        • Kid A (2000) hit in the United States and UK
  • The appeal of alternative music
    • Possible reasons for acceptance of alternative music
      1. Rejection of the MTV emphasis on glamor
      2. Rejection of heavy metal virtuosity and self-indulgence
      3. The "return to basics" approach of punk had proven successful earlier
      4. Rock audiences require changes in the overall genre
    • These bands and artists are too recent to know their true place in rock history.

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